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TABLE OF CONTENTS: LOGICALLY STRUCTURED ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4



LOGICALLY STRUCTURED ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
BRIEF HISTORY 13
H1: OF ENGLISH 13
H2: OF GRAMMAR 16
H3: AND OF THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD LANGUAGE 18
FOREWORD 19
ABBREVIATIONS USED 21
AN INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS 22
I1: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN GRAMMAR 24
I2: GENERAL ASPECTS IN PHONETICS 26
I3: MORPHOLOGY DOMAIN 26
I4: SENTENCE SYNTAX DOMAIN 29
I5: COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX DOMAIN 31
I6: USING GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS 32
I7: USING PUNCTUATION 33

PART 1: PHONETICS

ENGLISH PHONETICS 36
PH1: ENGLISH SOUNDS 36
PH2: VOWELS 38
PH3: SEMI-VOWELS 39
PH4: CONSONANTS 39
PH5: DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS 40
PH6: SPELLING THE ALPHABET 41
PH7: PRONOUNCING FOREIGN NAMES 41

PART 2: MORPHOLOGY

M1: NOUNS 44
M1.1 CATEGORIES OF NOUNS 45
M1.2 THE NUMBER OF THE NOUN 50
M1.3 THE GENDER OF THE NOUN 55
M1.3.1 THE GENDER OF COMMON NOUNS 57
M1.3.2 THE GENDER OF PROPER NOUNS 59
M1.3.3 EXPRESSING NOUNS’ GENDER ANALYTICALLY 59
M1.3.4 EXPRESSING NOUNS’ GENDER USING PERSONIFICATIONS 61
M1.4 THE CASE OF THE NOUN 61
M1.4.1 NOMINATIVE 64
M1.4.2 VOCATIVE 66
M1.4.3 DATIVE 66
M1.4.4 ACCUSATIVE 69
M1.4.5 GENITIVE 71
M1.4.5.1 SYNTHETIC GENITIVE 74
M1.4.5.2 ANALYTIC GENITIVE 77
M1.5 NOUN’S DECLENSION 78
M1.6 FORMING NOUNS AND EQUIVALENT NOUNS 81
M1.6.1 FORMING NOUNS USING DERIVATION 81
M1.6.2 FORMING NOUNS AND EQUIVALENT NOUNS USING COMPOSITION 84
M1.6.3 FORMING NOUNS USING GRAMMAR CATEGORY CONVERSION 85

M2: ARTICLES 87
M2.1 READING ARTICLES 89
M2.2 NOUNS TAKING NO ARTICLES 90
M2.3 INDEFINITE ARTICLE 91
M2.4 DEFINITE ARTICLE 94
M2.5 IMPLICITLY PRESENT OR MISSING ARTICLE 95

M3: ADJECTIVES 98
M3.1 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES 100
M3.1.1 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WORKING AS COMMON ATTRIBUTES 103
M3.1.2 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WORKING AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS 104
M3.1.3 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WORKING AS OBJECT COMPLEMENTS 106
M3.2 DETERMINING ADJECTIVES 107
M3.2.1 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 107
M3.2.2 DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES 109
M3.2.3 INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES 112
M3.2.4 RELATIVE ADJECTIVES 113
M3.2.5 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES 115
M3.3 COMPARING ADJECTIVES 116
M3.3.1 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES: SUPERIORITY COMPARISON 117
M3.3.2 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES: EQUALITY COMPARISON 122
M3.3.3 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES: INFERIORITY COMPARISON 123
M3.4 QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES IN COMPARATIVE COMPLEX SENTENCES 124
M3.5 FORMING ADJECTIVES 126
M3.5.1 FORMING ADJECTIVES USING DERIVATION 127
M3.5.2 FORMING ADJECTIVES USING COMPOSITION 128
M3.5.3 FORMING ADJECTIVES USING CONVERSION 128
M3.6 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES 129
M3.6.1 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “MUCH”, “MANY”, “LONG” 130
M3.6.2 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “LITTLE”, “SMALL”, “FEW” 131
M3.6.3 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “FIRST”, “FORE”, “FORMER” 132
M3.6.4 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “LAST”, “NEAR”, “NEXT” 133
M3.6.5 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “FARTHER”, “FURTHER” 134
M3.6.6 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “OUT”, “UTTER” 135
M3.6.7 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “OLDER”, “ELDER” 136
M3.6.8 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “EACH”, “EVERY” 136
M3.6.9 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “ALL”, “ONE” 137
M3.6.10 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “SOME”, “ANY”, “NO”, “NONE” 138
M3.6.11 PARTICULAR ADJECTIVES: “THIS”, “THAT”, “THESE”, “THOSE” 139

M4: PRONOUNS 142
M4.1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS 143
M4.2 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 151
M4.3 REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS 154
M4.4 RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS 157
M4.5 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 158
M4.5.1 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: “THIS”, “THAT”, “THESE”, “THOSE” 159
M4.5.2 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: “FIRST”, “LAST” 162
M4.5.3 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: “FORMER”, “LATTER” 163
M4.5.4 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: “OTHER”, “OTHERS” 164
M4.5.5 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: “ONE”, “ONES” 164
M4.5.6 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: “SAME”, “SUCH”, “SO” 165
M4.6 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 167
M4.7 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 170
M4.7.1 RELATIVE PRONOUNS: “WHO”, “WHICH”, “WHAT” 172
M4.7.2 RELATIVE PRONOUNS: “THAT” 173
M4.7.3 RELATIVE PRONOUNS: “AS” 174
M4.7.4 RELATIVE PRONOUNS: “BUT” 175
M4.8 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 175
M4.8.1 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “ALL”, “WHOLE”, “ONE” 176
M4.8.2 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “SOME” 177
M4.8.3 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “ANY” 177
M4.8.4 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “NONE”, “NO” 178
M4.8.5 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “EITHER”, “NEITHER” 179
M4.8.6 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “OTHER”, “OTHERS” 180
M4.8.7 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “EACH”, “EVERY” 181
M4.8.8 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: “BOTH”, “CERTAIN”, “SEVERAL” 182
M4.8.9 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: IMPERSONAL “YOU”, “HE”, “IT”, “WE”, “THEY” 182

M5: NUMERALS 185
M5.1 CARDINAL NUMERALS 186
M5.2 ORDINAL NUMERALS 190
M5.3 FRACTIONAL NUMERALS 191
M5.3.1 COMMON FRACTION 192
M5.3.2 DECIMAL NUMBERS 192
M5.4 COLLECTIVE NUMERALS 193
M5.5 MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS 194
M5.6 DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS 194
M5.7 ADVERBIAL NUMERALS 195
M5.8 INDEFINITE NUMERALS 196
M5.9 WORKING WITH NUMERALS 197
M5.9.1 TYPES OF NUMBERS 197
M5.9.2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 198
M5.9.3 MULTIPLICATION, DIVISION, EXPONENTIATION 199
M5.9.4 IDIOMATIC NUMERAL EXPRESSIONS 200


LOGICALLY STRUCTURED ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4

M6: VERBS 201
M6.1 VERB’S GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES 202
M6.1.1 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS 204
M6.1.2 THE ASPECT OF THE VERB 205
M6.1.3 THE VOICE OF THE VERB 207
M6.1.4 THE NUMBER OF THE VERB 209
M6.1.5 THE PERSON OF THE VERB 210
M6.1.6 THE MOOD OF THE VERB 211
M6.1.7 THE TENSE OF THE VERB 212
M6.1.8 PRINCIPAL, AUXILIARY, AND MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS 214
M6.1.9 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 215
M6.2 VERB FORMS CHARTS 217
M6.2.1 VERB FORMS CHART: COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 218
M6.2.2 VERB FORMS CHART: COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 219
M6.2.3 VERB FORMS CHART: CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 220
M6.2.4 VERB FORMS CHART: CONTINUOUS ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 221

M6.3 PERSONAL MOODS 222
M6.3.1 INDICATIVE: PRESENT 223
M6.3.1.1 PRESENT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 224
M6.3.1.2 PRESENT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 225
M6.3.1.3 PRESENT INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 226
M6.3.1.4 PRESENT INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 227
M6.3.2 INDICATIVE: PAST 227
M6.3.2.1 PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 228
M6.3.2.2 PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 230
M6.3.2.3 PAST INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 231
M6.3.2.4 PAST INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 231
M6.3.3 INDICATIVE: FUTURE 232
M6.3.3.1 FUTURE INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 233
M6.3.3.2 FUTURE INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 234
M6.3.3.3 FUTURE INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 235
M6.3.4 INDICATIVE: FUTURE IN THE PAST 235
M6.3.4.1 FUTURE IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 236
M6.3.4.2 FUTURE IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 237
M6.3.4.3 FUTURE IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 238
M6.3.5 INDICATIVE: PRESENT PERFECT 238
M6.3.5.1 PRESENT PERFECT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 239
M6.3.5.2 PRESENT PERFECT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 241
M6.3.5.3 PRESENT PERFECT INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 241
M6.3.6 INDICATIVE: PAST PERFECT 242
M6.3.6.1 PAST PERFECT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 243
M6.3.6.2 PAST PERFECT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 244
M6.3.6.3 PAST PERFECT INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 244
M6.3.7 INDICATIVE: FUTURE PERFECT 245
M6.3.7.1 FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 245
M6.3.7.2 FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 246
M6.3.7.3 FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 247
M6.3.8 INDICATIVE: FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST 247
M6.3.8.1 FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 248
M6.3.8.2 FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 248
M6.3.8.3 FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 249
M6.3.9 SUBJUNCTIVE: PRESENT 249
M6.3.9.1 PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 251
M6.3.9.2 PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 253
M6.3.9.3 PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 254
M6.3.9.4 PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 254
M6.3.10 SUBJUNCTIVE: PERFECT 255
M6.3.10.1 PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 255
M6.3.10.2 PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 257
M6.3.10.3 PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 257
M6.3.11 OLD-FORM SUBJUNCTIVE AND EQUIVALENT SUBJUNCTIVES 258
M6.3.12 CONDITIONAL: PRESENT 261
M6.3.12.1 PRESENT CONDITIONAL, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 262
M6.3.12.2 PRESENT CONDITIONAL, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 263
M6.3.12.3 PRESENT CONDITIONAL, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 264
M6.3.12.4 EQUIVALENT PRESENT CONDITIONALS 264
M6.3.13 CONDITIONAL: PERFECT 265
M6.3.13.1 PERFECT CONDITIONAL, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 266
M6.3.13.2 PERFECT CONDITIONAL, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 267
M6.3.13.3 PERFECT CONDITIONAL, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 267
M6.3.13.4 EQUIVALENT PERFECT CONDITIONALS 268
M6.3.14 IMPERATIVE: PRESENT AND PERFECT 268
M6.3.14.1 PRESENT AND PERFECT IMPERATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 269
M6.3.14.2 PRESENT IMPERATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 270
M6.3.14.3 PRESENT IMPERATIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 271
M6.3.15 USUAL CONTRACTIONS 271

M6.4 IMPERSONAL MOODS 275
M6.4.1 INFINITIVE: PRESENT 276
M6.4.1.1 PRESENT INFINITIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 277
M6.4.1.2 PRESENT INFINITIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 280
M6.4.1.3 PRESENT INFINITIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 281
M6.4.2 INFINITIVE: PERFECT 281
M6.4.2.1 PERFECT INFINITIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 282
M6.4.2.2 PERFECT INFINITIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 282
M6.4.2.3 PERFECT INFINITIVE, CONTINUOUS ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 282
M6.4.3 PARTICIPLE: PRESENT 283
M6.4.3.1 PRESENT PARTICIPLE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 283
M6.4.3.2 PRESENT PARTICIPLE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 285
M6.4.3.3 THE “-ING FORM” 285
M6.4.4 PARTICIPLE: PAST 286
M6.4.4.1 PAST PARTICIPLE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 287
M6.4.4.2 PAST PARTICIPLE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 288
M6.4.5 PARTICIPLE: PERFECT 289
M6.4.5.1 PERFECT PARTICIPLE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 289
M6.4.5.2 PERFECT PARTICIPLE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 290
M6.4.6 GERUND: PRESENT 290
M6.4.6.1 PRESENT GERUND, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 291
M6.4.6.2 PRESENT GERUND, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 293
M6.4.6.3 PRESENT GERUND VERSUS PRESENT PARTICIPLE 293
M6.4.7 GERUND: PERFECT 294
M6.4.7.1 PERFECT GERUND, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 295
M6.4.7.2 PERFECT GERUND, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 296
M6.5 IRREGULAR VERBS 297
M6.5.1 USING IRREGULAR VERBS 299
M6.5.2 DIFFICULT VERBS 299

M6.6 AUXILIARY VERBS 304
M6.6.1 AUXILIARY VERBS: “TO BE” 306
M6.6.1.1 VERB FORMS CHARTS: “TO BE” 306
M6.6.1.2 USING “TO BE” 307
M6.6.2 AUXILIARY VERBS: “TO HAVE” 309
M6.6.2.1 VERB FORMS CHARTS: “TO HAVE” 309
M6.6.2.2 USING “TO HAVE” 311
M6.6.3 AUXILIARY VERBS: “TO DO” 313
M6.6.4 AUXILIARY VERBS: “TO LET” 314

M6.7 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS 317
M6.7.1 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: CHARACTERISTICS 318
M6.7.1.1 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: CONJUGATIONS 318
M6.7.1.2 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 319
M6.7.2 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: “SHALL”, “SHOULD” 322
M6.7.3 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: “WILL”, “WOULD” 324
M6.7.4 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: “CAN”, “COULD” 327
M6.7.5 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: “MAY”, “MIGHT” 329
M6.7.6 MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS: “MUST”, “OUGHT TO” 331
M6.7.6.1 MODAL DEFECTIVE “MUST” 331
M6.7.6.2 MODAL DEFECTIVE “OUGHT TO” 332
M6.7.7 OTHER AUXILIARY AND MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS 333
M6.7.7.1 SEMI-MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS 333
M6.7.7.2 SEMI-AUXILIARY VERBS 334
M6.7.7.3 NEAR FUTURE INDICATIVE: ARGUMENTS PRO AND CONTRA 336
M6.7.8 INDICATIVE: NEAR FUTURE 338
M6.7.8.1 NEAR FUTURE INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 338
M6.7.8.2 NEAR FUTURE INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 339
M6.7.9 INDICATIVE: NEAR FUTURE IN THE PAST 339
M6.7.9.1 NEAR FUTURE IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, ACTIVE VOICE 340
M6.7.9.2 NEAR FUTURE IN THE PAST INDICATIVE, COMMON ASPECT, PASSIVE VOICE 341
M6.8 FORMING VERBS 342
M6.8.1 FORMING VERBS USING DERIVATION 342
M6.8.2 FORMING VERBS USING GRAMMAR CATEGORY CONVERSION 343
M6.8.3 FORMING VERBS USING THE “COMPOUNDING WORDS” METHOD 344
M6.8.4 FORMING COMPLEX VERBS 344
M6.8.5 FORMING EQUIVALENT VERBS 344
M6.8.6 ONOMATOPOEIC VERBS 345

LOGICALLY STRUCTURED ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
M7: ADVERBS 346

M7.1 CATEGORIES OF ADVERBS 348
M7.2 ADVERBIAL PARTICLES 350
M7.3 QUALIFYING ADVERBS 351
M7.3.1 QUALIFYING ADVERBS OF MANNER 352
M7.3.1.1 ADVERBS OF QUALITY – FREQUENT COMMON MISTAKES 353
M7.3.1.2 INTENSIFIER ADVERBS 356
M7.3.1.3 ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION, NEGATION, PROBABILITY 357
M7.3.1.4 ADVERBS OF RESTRICTION 358
M7.3.1.5 EXPLANATORY ADVERBS 359
M7.3.1.6 ADVERBS OF QUANTITY, AMOUNT, DEGREE 360
M7.3.1.7 INTRODUCTORY ADVERBS 361
M7.3.2 QUALIFYING ADVERBS OF TIME 362
M7.3.3 QUALIFYING ADVERBS OF PLACE 362
M7.3.4 QUALIFYING ADVERBS OF EVOLUTION 363
M7.3.4.1 ADVERBS OF CAUSE 365
M7.3.4.2 ADVERBS OF PURPOSE 365
M7.4 DETERMINING ADVERBS 366
M7.5 USING ADVERBS 368
M7.5.1 ADVERBS AND SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS 369
M7.5.2 ADVERBS, ADJECTIVES, AND NOUNS HAVING IDENTICAL FORMS 370
M7.5.3 ADVERBS TAKING TWO FORMS 371
M7.5.4 PARTICULAR ADVERBS: “BUT”, “STILL”, “YET” 371
M7.5.5 PARTICULAR ADVERBS: “VERY” 372
M7.5.6 PARTICULAR ADVERBS: “THE”, “THERE”, “TOO” 373
M7.5.7 PARTICULAR ADVERBS: “HARDLY ... WHEN”, “NO SOONER ... THAN”, “JUST NOW” 374
M7.5.8 PARTICULAR ADVERBS: “AGO”, “SINCE”, “BEFORE”, “BESIDES” 375
M7.6 COMPARING ADVERBS 376
M7.7 POSITIONING ADVERBS 380
M7.7.1 POSITIONING ADVERBS OF MANNER 381
M7.7.2 POSITIONING ADVERBS OF TIME 383
M7.7.3 POSITIONING ADVERBS OF PLACE 385
M7.7.4 POSITIONING OTHER CATEGORIES OF ADVERBS 385
M7.7.5 USING SPLIT INFINITIVE 387
M7.7.6 POSITIONING MULTIPLE ADVERBS 388
M7.7.7 POSITIONING A FEW PARTICULAR ADVERBS 388
M7.8 FORMING ADVERBS 390
M7.8.1 FORMING DERIVATIVE ADVERBS 390
M7.8.2 FORMING COMPOUND ADVERBS 392

M8: PREPOSITIONS 393
M8.1 COMPARING PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, ADVERBS 394
M8.2 TYPES OF PREPOSITIONS 396
M8.2.1 TYPES OF PREPOSITIONS 396
M8.2.2 PLACING PREPOSITIONS 397
M8.3 VERBS WITH PREPOSITION 399
M8.4 VERBS WITH ADVERBIAL PARTICLE AND PREPOSITION 399
M8.5 USING PREPOSITIONS 399

M9: CONJUNCTIONS 405
M9.1 TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS 406
M9.2 EQUIVALENT SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS 413
M9.3 PARTICULAR CONJUNCTIONS: “LIKE”, “AS”, “TILL”, “THAT”, “IF”, “WHETHER” 413

M10: INTERJECTIONS 416

PART 3: SENTENCE SYNTAX

S1: INTRODUCTION TO SENTENCE SYNTAX 419
S1.1 FUNCTIONS, RELATIONS, AND SYNTACTIC ELEMENTS 420
S1.2 RELATIONAL-LOGIC SYNTACTIC FRAMEWORK 422
S1.3 TYPES OF SENTENCES 424
S1.4 ANALYZABLE AND UNANALYZABLE SENTENCES 427
S1.5 “FOLDED” AND “UNFOLDED” SENTENCES 428
S1.6 ELLIPTIC SENTENCES 429

S2: SUBJECTS 431
S2.1 CATEGORIES OF SUBJECTS 431
S2.2 GRAMMATICAL AND LOGIC SUBJECTS 434
S2.3 PSEUDO-SUBJECTS IN ACCUSATIVE CASE 435
S2.4 “PROVISIONAL SUBJECT” INTERPRETATION 436
S2.5 ELLIPTIC SUBJECTS 437
S2.6 POSITIONING SUBJECTS 438

S3: PREDICATES 440
S3.1 VERBAL PREDICATE 442
S3.2 COPULATIVE PREDICATE 443
S3.3 NOMINAL PREDICATE AND PREDICATIVE NAME 446
S3.4 “PREDICATIVE COMPLEMENT” INTERPRETATION 449
S3.5 “PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVES” INTERPRETATION 450
S3.6 “APPOSITIVE PREDICATE” INTERPRETATION 451
S3.7 “PREDICATE OF RESULT” INTERPRETATION 451

S4: ATTRIBUTES 453
S4.1 COMMON ATTRIBUTES 454
S4.2 POSITIONING ATTRIBUTES 456
S4.3 SUBJECT COMPLEMENT ATTRIBUTES 458
S4.4 OBJECT COMPLEMENT ATTRIBUTES 460
S4.5 APPOSITIONS 461

S5: OBJECTS 463
S5.1 DIRECT OBJECT 463
S5.1.1 “COGNATE OBJECT” INTERPRETATION 466
S5.1.2 “PREDICATES TAKING TWO DIRECT OBJECTS” INTERPRETATION 466
S5.2 INDIRECT OBJECT 467
S5.2.1 INDIRECT OBJECT WITHOUT PREPOSITION 468
S5.2.2 INDIRECT OBJECT WITH PREPOSITION 469
S5.2.3 PREDICATES TAKING DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS 471
S5.2.4 “RETAINED OBJECT” INTERPRETATION 472
S5.3 PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT 473
S5.3.1 COMPARISON: PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT VERSUS PREPOSITIONAL ADVERBIAL 475
S5.3.2 IDENTICAL PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT AND PREPOSITIONAL ADVERBIAL 475
S5.3.3 USING PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT 476
S5.3.4 “COMPLEX OBJECT” INTERPRETATION 476

S6: ADVERBIALS 478
S6.1 ADVERBIAL OF TIME 480
S6.2 ADVERBIAL OF PLACE 482
S6.3 ADVERBIAL OF EVOLUTION 483
S6.3.1 ADVERBIAL OF CAUSE 484
S6.3.2 ADVERBIAL OF PURPOSE OR RESULT 485
S6.4 ADVERBIAL OF MANNER 486
S6.4.1 ADVERBIAL OF MANNER AND COMPARISON 486
S6.4.2 ADVERBIAL OF CONDITION OR SUPPOSITION 488
S6.4.3 ADVERBIAL OF CONCESSION 489
S6.5 COMPOUND ADVERBIALS 490

S7: SUBJECT – PREDICATE AGREEMENT 491
S7.1 SUBJECTS TAKING PREDICATES IN EITHER SINGULAR OR PLURAL FORM 491
S7.2 PLURAL SUBJECTS TAKING PREDICATES IN SINGULAR FORM 492
S7.3 SINGULAR SUBJECTS TAKING PREDICATES IN PLURAL FORM 493
S7.4 PREDICATE AGREEMENT WITH COMPOUND SUBJECTS 493

S8: SENTENCE STRUCTURE 497
S8.1 GENERAL SENTENCE STRUCTURE 497
S8.2 ACCENTUATION 497
S8.3 RESONANCE AND RHYTHM 498
S8.4 NATURAL DECLARATIVE SENTENCE STRUCTURE 498
S8.5 NATURAL INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE STRUCTURE 499
S8.6 THE SUBJECT-PREDICATE ORDER 500
S8.7 THE ORDER OF MULTIPLE QUALIFYING ATTRIBUTES 502

LOGICALLY STRUCTURED ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4

PART 4: COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX

CS1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX 505

CS2: COORDINATION RELATIONS 509
CS2.1: COPULATIVE AND CUMULATIVE COORDINATION RELATIONS 509
CS2.2: DISJUNCTIVE COORDINATION RELATION 511
CS2.3: ADVERSATIVE COORDINATION RELATION 511
CS2.4: CONCLUSIVE COORDINATION RELATION 512
CS2.5: EXPLICATIVE COORDINATION RELATION 513

CS3: SUBORDINATION RELATIONS – ANALOGY TO MORPHOLOGY 515
CS3.1 NOUN CLAUSES 517
CS3.2 ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE 518
CS3.3 VERBAL CLAUSE 520
CS3.4 ADVERB CLAUSES 521
CS3.4.1 ADVERBIAL OF TIME CLAUSE 521
CS3.4.2 ADVERBIAL OF PLACE CLAUSE 522
CS3.4.3 ADVERBIAL OF EVOLUTION CLAUSES 523
CS3.4.3.1 ADVERBIAL OF CAUSE CLAUSE 523
CS3.4.3.2 ADVERBIAL OF PURPOSE CLAUSE 524
CS3.4.3.3 ADVERBIAL OF RESULT OR CONSECUTIVE CLAUSE 525
CS3.4.3.4 ADVANCED INTERPRETATIONS OF ADVERBIAL OF EVOLUTION CLAUSES 525
CS3.4.4 ADVERBIAL OF MANNER CLAUSES 526
CS3.4.4.1 ADVERBIAL OF MANNER AND COMPARISON CLAUSE 527
CS3.4.4.2 ADVERBIAL OF CONCESSION CLAUSE 528
CS3.4.4.3 ADVERBIAL OF CONDITION CLAUSE 528
CS3.5 RELATIVE CLAUSES 529

CS4: SUBORDINATION RELATIONS – ANALOGY TO SENTENCE SYNTAX 534
CS4.1 SUBJECTIVE CLAUSES 535
CS4.2 PREDICATIVE CLAUSES 536
CS4.3 ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES 538
CS4.4 OBJECTIVE CLAUSES 540
CS4.5 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 541

CS5: SYNTACTICAL COMPLEX SENTENCE ANALYSIS 542
CS5.1 COMPLEX SENTENCE ANALYSIS 543
CS5.2 DOUBLE SENTENCE ANALYSIS 544
CS5.3 MULTIPLE SENTENCE ANALYSIS 545

CS6: THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES 548
CS6.1 RULES 548
CS6.2 EXCEPTIONS 549
CS6.3 ADDITIONAL EXCEPTIONS 550

CS7: CONDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCE 552
CS7.1 RULE 1: REAL ACTION IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSE 552
CS7.2 RULE 2: UNREAL ACTION IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSE 554
CS7.3 TENSES AGREEMENT IN CONDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCE 557
CS7.4 REDUCED CONDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCE 558
CS7.5 REVERSING THE ORDER IN CONDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCE 559
CS7.6 EXTENDED CONDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCE 560

CS8: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE 561
CS8.1 DIRECT TO INDIRECT STYLE: GENERAL RULES 562
CS8.2 INTERROGATIVE, EMPHATIC, AND IMPERATIVE SENTENCES IN INDIRECT STYLE 566
CS8.2.1 TRANSFORMING INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES TO INDIRECT STYLE 566
CS8.2.2 TRANSFORMING EMPHATIC SENTENCES TO INDIRECT STYLE 567
CS8.2.3 TRANSFORMING IMPERATIVE SENTENCES TO INDIRECT STYLE 567

CS9: INTERROGATIONS AND NEGATIONS 569
CS9.1 INTERROGATIONS 569
CS9.1.1 INTERROGATIONS WITH “TO BE” 569
CS9.1.2 INTERROGATIONS WITH “TO HAVE” 570
CS9.1.3 INTERROGATIONS WITH MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS 571
CS9.1.4 INTERROGATIONS WITH “ALL OTHER VERBS” GROUP 571
CS9.1.5 CONFIRMATIVE QUESTION 572
CS9.1.6 RHETORICAL QUESTION 572
CS9.1.7 OTHER FORMS OF INTERROGATIONS 573
CS9.2 NEGATIONS 574
CS9.2.1 NEGATIONS WITH “TO BE” 574
CS9.2.2 NEGATIONS WITH “TO HAVE” 574
CS9.2.3 NEGATIONS WITH MODAL DEFECTIVE VERBS 575
CS9.2.4 NEGATIONS WITH “ALL OTHER VERBS” GROUP 576
CS9.2.5 NEGATIVE INTERROGATIONS 577
CS9.2.6 DOUBLE NEGATION 577
CS9.3 “SOME”, “ANY”, “NO” IN AFFIRMATIONS, INTERROGATIONS, NEGATIONS 578
CS9.4 USING SHORT ANSWER 580

PART 5: PUNCTUATION

PT1: ABOUT ENGLISH PUNCTUATION 583
PT1.1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN PUNCTUATION 585
PT1.2 TITLE 585
PT1.3 SENTENCE 586
PT1.4 COMPLEX SENTENCE 587
PT1.5 PARAGRAPH 587
PT2: PERIOD 588
PT3: QUOTES 590
PT4: COMMA 593

PT4.1 USING COMMA WITH COORDINATE CLAUSES 593
PT4.2 USING COMMA WITH SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 594
PT4.3 USING COMMA IN SENTENCES 597
PT4.4 ISOLATING APPOSITIONS AND VOCATIVES 600
PT4.5 SEPARATING MULTIPLE QUALIFYING ATTRIBUTES 600
PT4.6 USING COMMA IN SERIES 601
PT4.7 USING COMMA IN VERTICAL LISTS 603
PT4.8 USING COMMA IN INTERJECTIONS AND ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTIONS 604
PT4.9 USING COMMA TO INTRODUCE DIRECT STYLE 605
PT4.10 MAIN MISTAKES IN COMMA USE 605
PT5: SEMICOLON 608
PT6: COLON 609
PT7: EXCLAMATION POINT AND QUESTION MARK 610

PT7.1 USING THE EXCLAMATION POINT 610
PT7.2 USING THE QUESTION MARK 611
PT8: HYPHEN AND DASHES 612
PT8.1 HYPHEN 613
PT8.2 USING THE “EN DASH” 613
PT8.3 USING THE “EM DASH” 614
PT9: SOLIDUS 616
PT10: POINTS OF ELLIPSIS 617
PT11: BRACKETS AND PARENTHESES 618

PT11.1 ANGLE BRACKETS 618
PT11.2 BRACES 619
PT11.3 SQUARE BRACKETS 619
PT11.4 PARENTHESES 619
PT12: APOSTROPHE 620
PT12.1 USING THE APOSTROPHE IN SYNTHETIC GENITIVE 620
PT12.2 FORMING CUSTOM PLURAL NOUNS 620
PT12.3 FORMING CUSTOM ADJECTIVES 621
PT12.4 MARKING PHONETIC OMISSIONS 621

BIBLIOGRAPHY 622
DOWNLOADING “LSEG4–EXERCISES WORKBOOK” COMPANION 623

AP1: THE ALPHABET SONG 624
AP2: SPELLING LETTERS 625
AP3: TECHNICAL NUMERALS 626
AP4: ROMAN NUMERALS 629
AP5: THE LATIN ALPHABET 630
AP6: IRREGULAR VERBS 631
AP7: VERBS WITH ADVERBIAL PARTICLE 636
AP8: VERBS WITH PREPOSITION 638
 


LSEG 4TH EDITION
RED LEAF L





A complete grammatical reference, very easy to learn: Logically Structured English Grammar 4—as theory plus exercises!

 
 
 
 
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