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GRAMMAR NOTES: PUNCTUATION

GREEN LEAVES L
FRAGMENT FROM LSEG4


Regardless of the amount of Grammar we know, we need Punctuation to make Grammar work for us beneficially, in society.

Fundamental principles in punctuation” pertains to the structural elements of a document: “title”, “sentence”, “complex sentence”, and “paragraph”. Note that the topics presented in this chapter are specific to English grammar. However, since English has become the international standard language it is fair to assume that English punctuation also is an excellent reference for any other language on the Planet.

FRAGMENT FROM LSEG4

Just one example, in order to present comma appropriately, chapter "PT4: Comma" is structured in:

PT4.1 Using Comma with Coordinate Clauses
PT4.2 Using Comma with Subordinate Clauses
PT4.3 Using Comma in Sentences
PT4.4 Isolating Appositions and Vocatives
PT4.5 Separating Multiple Qualifying Attributes
PT4.6 Using Comma in Series
PT4.7 Using Comma in Vertical Lists
PT4.8 Using Comma in Interjections and Elliptic Constructions
PT4.9 Using Comma to introduce Direct Style
PT4.10 Main Mistakes in Comma Use

However, although using a comma correctly is particularly important, that is far from everything. There are many more significant Punctuation topics; consider only the "Direct/Indirect Style" principles/rules.


There are many good reference books dedicated to presenting “Punctuation” (as orthographical rules plus some typographical conventions). Two of the most reputable are:

1. The Oxford Guide to Style—The Style Bible for all Writers, Editors, and Publishers [published in UK];
2. The Chicago Manual of Style—The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers [published in USA].

Each of the above books is an excellent reference, although there are slight differences between them. Both books have been thoroughly analyzed and then used as guidance in LGEG4, although other excellent orthographic references have been used as well. Note that each of the two books above contains about a thousand pages of very advanced topics, quite difficult to comprehend; as a result, it is an exceptional performance to extract and compress the essence of the punctuation rules in just 50 pages in LSEG4 [true now, one LSEG4 page is about the double of an ordinary book page].
 


FRAGMENT FROM LSEG4


Appositions” are isolated within commas if they are not restrictive (mandatory to the meaning). The general rule is: “if the apposition is mandatory to the meaning, it is not marked by commas; in all other situations, the apposition is isolated by a pair of commas”. [As a reminder, appositions are descriptive, in most instances.]

GREEN LEAF RFRAGMENT FROM LSEG4





The "em dash" is a typographical convention [and a N. American invention], not a fundamental orthographic mark. Note that some of the functions the "em dash" brings along are extremely useful, and they are strongly encouraged in LGEG4; other functions, however, are not.

FRAGMENT FROM LSEG4





In USA, the order of nesting quotes is: double quotes, simple quotes, double quotes [1 “ (2 ‘ {3 “ ” 3} ’ 2) ” 1]. In UK, the (official) order is reversed: simple quotes, double quotes, and then simple quotes again [1 ‘ (2 “ {3 ‘ ’ 3} ” 2) ’ 1].


The punctuation topics presented in minute details in LGEG4 are:

A. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN PUNCTUATION
A1. Title
A2. Sentence
A3. Complex Sentence
A4. Paragraph

B. EMBEDDING PUNCTUATION MARKS IN CONTEXT
B1. Period
B2. Quotes
B3. Comma
B4. Semicolon
B5. Colon
B6. Exclamation Point
B7. Question Mark
B8. Hyphen and Dashes ("n" dash, "m" dash)
B9. Solidus/Virgule
B10. Points of Ellipsis
B11. Brackets and Parenthesis
B12. Apostrophe

C. SPECIFIC PUNCTUATION AND COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX IMPLEMENTATIONS
C1. The Sequence of Tenses
C2. Conditional Complex Sentence
C3. Direct and Indirect Style
C4. Interrogations
C5. Negations


LSEG 4TH EDITION
RED LEAF L





A complete grammatical reference, very easy to learn: Logically Structured English Grammar 4—as theory plus exercises!

 
 
 
 
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Page last updated on: July 10, 2017
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