GRAMMAR NOTES: COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX


GREEN LEAVES R
NOTE
Descriptive grammars attempt to strip Sentence Syntax from grammatical analysis, since Sentence Syntax is such a simple, logic, universal mechanism. [Once again, GRAMMAR IS SENTENCE SYNTAX.] However, we also have Complex Sentence Syntax which cannot be controlled/explained/interpreted (properly) without Sentence Syntax. This is the only reason a rudiment of Sentence Syntax may still be discovered in most modern grammar books.

The problems reside in the fact that, since they have rejected the classic/traditional Sentence Syntax, more and more linguists attempt to re-interpret Sentence Syntax erroneously, in a personal manner. That process has been worsening by itself, year after year, until we got to this point, today, in which the linguists have little or no idea about the abstract mathematical model of Sentence Syntax!

Yeah but, you see, without Sentence Syntax nothing works in Grammar: Morphology cannot be explained appropriately, therefore Complex Sentence Syntax also is severely impaired. In the end, the entire assembly of Grammar [as SENTENCE SYNTAX + MORPHOLOGY + COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX + PUNCTUATION + DIRECT/INDIRECT STYLE] becomes meaningless.

Fortunately, there is one book in the entire World today [note this again, a single book left!] which explains Grammar in its totality, as never before in history: "Logically Structured English Grammar 4". In addition, we also offer an impressive collection of grammatical exercises [14 thousand, all solved!] in "LSEG4-Exercises Workbook" which allow anybody to practice grammatical analysis to their heart's content!


Syntax
GREEN LEAF LThe terms “clause” and “sentence” are not synonyms/equivalent. The term “(constituent) clause” names “a structural unit”, a component used only in Complex Sentence Syntax. Outside the Complex Sentence Syntax domain frame, the term “clause” does not exist—it makes no sense.

Note that one constituent clause can be just the predicate “is”: we cannot say that “is” is a sentence, although it is a perfectly valid clause in Complex Sentence Syntax. The point to note is, in a “complex sentence” there are only (constituent) clauses, not sentences.

However, once we step down (grammatically) from Complex Sentence Syntax to Sentence Syntax, or to Morphology, then clauses are treated as one “equivalent syntactic/morphologic element”. [Attention, a simple Complex Sentence is the equivalent of one sentence in Morphology and in Sentence Syntax; the component clauses of that Complex Sentence form only the equivalent component morphologic/syntactic elements.]

LSEG4: COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTACTICAL DOMAINThe applications domain/realm in Complex Sentence Syntax is the “complex sentence”. Further, in a complex sentence there are two main components: the “clauses” (having a concrete nature), plus “relational functionality” (which is abstract in nature).

Relational functionality, specific to Complex Sentence Syntax, is further characterized by:
     1. “coordination relations”;
     2. “subordination relations”;
     3. “the accomplishment of the global meaning” of the complex-sentence.

L4EW: FRAGMENT OF AN EXERCISE FROM INTRODUCTION TO COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX



Complex Sentence Syntax is a difficult grammatical analysis since it requires an advanced level of abstract logic, a lot higher than in Sentence Syntax. Complex sentence syntactical analysis is performed using two analog methods (each working as “a similarity”):
1. “Analogy to Morphology” (based on resemblance to the “morphologic form”);
2. “Analogy to Sentence Syntax” (based on similitude to “syntactic functionality”).

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LSEG4: SUBORDINATES CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO ANALOGY TO MORPHOLOGY



A complex sentence grammatical analysis may be performed using two analog methods (to Morphology, or to Sentence Syntax). Note, however, that the analogy is not perfect, regardless of the method employed. This means, complex sentence analysis is a bit different when it is compared (via an analog comparison) to the way morphological or syntactical elements work.

For example, the categories of morphological adverbs are different when they are compared to adverbials defined in Sentence Syntax. However, both sets of categories mentioned are different compared to adverbial subordinate clauses.

L4EW: FRAGMENT OF AN EXERCISE FROM CHAPTER COORDINATION RELATIONS


Complex sentence analysis requires a high level of abstract thinking. Note that one subordinate clause needs to be finally interpreted as one morphologic/syntactic element. Further, it does not matter what it says in one subordinate clause [well, not very much]; important is only its morphologic/syntactic functionality related to the main/regent clause.

LSEG4: CLASSIFICATION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES


Relative clauses are defined in Analogy to Morphology considering their “form”—respectively, the introductory equivalent conjunctions, plus the required or not punctuation marks. However, considering only their “functionality” (respectively, their restrictive/descriptive characteristics) relative clauses work exactly the same in Analogy to Sentence Syntax.
GREEN LEAF L
L4EW: FRAGMENT OF AN EXERCISE FROM CHAPTER SUBORDINATION RELATIONS






Relative subordinates are particularly important for their restrictive/descriptive characteristics which can be generalized to all types of subordinate clauses—including those defined in Analogy to Sentence Syntax.
GREEN LEAF R
LSEG4: SUBORDINATE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ANALOGY TO SENTENCE SYNTAX







Subordinate clauses exhibit a functionality similar to syntactical elements’; therefore, in Analogy to Sentence Syntax subordinate clauses are grouped in:

     A. subjective clauses
    
B. predicative clauses
    
C. attributive clauses
    
D. objective clauses
    
E. adverbial clauses
Conditional Complex SentenceGREEN LEAF L




Using correctly “conditional complex sentence” is a tough skill these days. The problem is, in most “modern” grammar books this topic is presented fairly confusing, in a “simplified” manner, without any logic—not in LSEG4 though.

L4EW: A FRAGMENT FROM A COMPLEX SENTENCE ANALYSIS EXAMPLE


The topic of "Diagramming Complex Sentences" is presented only in L4EW, because it refers strictly to solving complex sentence analyses, problems, exercises.

Accordingly, we have noticed that very many English teachers appear to be particularly interested in diagramming complex sentences. Well, dear readers, rest assured that everything is explained in minute details in L4EW, way more clear than in any other existing book on the market.

Unlike most other English grammar books, Complex Sentence Syntax is ended, in LSEG4, in "Direct/Indirect Style", and then in "Punctuation". Again, regardless of how much grammar we know, we need Punctuation in order to express/control grammar. On the other hand, note that one grammar book in not properly ended unless it contains an adequate, sufficiently detailed, Punctuation chapter.

Direct/Indirect Style principles represent an aggregate functionality needed to control the literary manner of expression. However, in LSEG4 are presented only grammatical methods of implementing Direct/Indirect Style. Literary "figures of speech" (such as, "comparisons", "metaphors", "tropes") are way too advanced stylistic topics, and they are somewhat beyond grammatical domain/range.
 


LSEG 4TH EDITION
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A complete grammatical reference, very easy to learn: Logically Structured English Grammar 4—as theory plus exercises!

 
 
 
 
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