GRAMMAR NOTES: ADJECTIVES

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LSEG4: ADJECTIVES
Attention: almost all modern grammar books [and particularly those of the “descriptive” type] use the term “modifier” when they relate to adjectives (and to other morphologic elements). Although that term appears to be a generally accepted convention, lately, in LSEG4 it is considered insufficient for . . . for anything.

Adjectives do not modify the nouns they determine: they only point out to the nouns, they describe their determined nouns, or they explain a quality (positive or negative) of their nouns. Of course, any addition to a noun (for example, an article) does modify the meaning of the noun, and of the entire sentence. However, any other morphologic element is capable of “modifying” the meaning; even a simple “–s” ending, or just a phonetic tone inflection could “modify” any given grammatical structure.

LSEG4: CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES

Lexically, the term “adjective” [AJ] means, “a word used to describe a quality”, and that is exactly the way adjectives work. Morphologically, adjectives are used to add qualities to nouns, or to determine them. Syntactically, adjectives function as attributes of other syntactic elements. Semantically, adjectives describe the nouns they determine, therefore they bring a major contribution in building up the meaning [though, not in “modifying” anything].

All morphologic adjectives are attributes in sentence syntax; the reverse however is not true. On the other hand, a syntactical attribute becomes a morphologic adjective, even if it is a noun or an adverb.

The structure employed to present adjectives in LSEG4 is:

M3.1 Qualifying Adjectives
M3.2 Determining Adjectives
M3.3 Comparing Adjectives
M3.4 Qualifying Adjectives in Comparative Complex Sentences
M3.5 Forming Adjectives
M3.6 Particular Adjectives


LSEG4: CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES




First thing, adjectives are grouped in:
     A. qualifying
     B. determining
 


Qualifying adjectives may be compared, therefore they form comparison degrees of superiority/inferiority, and this is a bit of a problem. It happens that adjectives' comparison may be implemented synthetically and/or analytically. However, some adjectives work with synthetic comparison, others with the analytic comparison, some may be used in both types of comparisons and, finally, a few qualifying adjectives do not form degrees of comparison.

In addition, some adjectives can be compared for equality using a few special adverbial connectors: "so . . . as", "as  . . . as", "than", "like".
 


LSEG4: ADJECTIVES SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS


Fragment from LSEG4: syntactic functionality of qualifying adjectives.
 

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LSEG4: USING QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES





Fragment from LSEG4: using qualifying adjectives.

L4EW: ADJECTIVE EXERCISESRED LEAF R





L4EW: fragment of an exercise from Adjectives chapter.
 


L4EW: ADJECTIVE EXERCISES








L4EW: fragment of an exercise from chapter Adjectives.


LSEG 4TH EDITION
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A complete grammatical reference, very easy to learn: Logically Structured English Grammar 4—as theory plus exercises!

 
 
 
 
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Page last updated on: February 04, 2017
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