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Date: June 5, 2016

Q19: Hello Corollary Theorems,

I graduated with a bachelor's degree in linguistics, and I stumbled onto your site when I was looking for some grammar information. You have made claims that your grammar book is unlike any other grammar books out there, and I have to admit that I am impressed by LSEG4 Table of Contents. It has prompted me to make plans to buy your book in the near future when I have the funds, though I am curious about some of the topics in your book. [. . .]

Q19.1 Why is the article "the" an adverb in the particular adverbs section?

Q19.2 Are there similarities among these words: "the", "there", "too"?

Q19.3 Is the "verbal clause" referring to non-finite clauses (infinitive and participial clauses)?

Q19.4 Is the verbal clause the fourth dependent clause?

C. J. - Miami, FL, USA

[There are more interesting questions in C. J.'s email to us, though we decided to address them one at a time.]

That fact that the definite article "the" works as an adverb in particular contexts is a trivial aspect in any good/serious grammar book. Accordingly, C. J. and the readers are offered the exceptional opportunity of studying this particular aspect in LSEG4, and we do not intend to spoil their sublime enlightenment by elaborating this topic here.

The only similarity between the words "the", "there", and "too" is the fact that they are all some ordinary words used a lot in expressing the meaning.
We do not cease to emphasize that LSEG4 is the best grammar book in the entire World to help beginners considering its logic structure, its comprehensiveness, and its exceptional graphic presentation. However, LSEG4 is also a complete, a correct, and a unique functional reference for the intermediate and advanced users of grammar as well. In this respect, note that there are a few grammatical topics in LSEG4 that are presented in premiere in grammatical history: "verbal clause" is one of them.

We cannot disclose the topic of "verbal clause" because it belongs entirely to our paying customers. The only thing we can do is to insert a few excerpts form LSEG4—though no functional examples, sorry about this.

Fragment form LSEG4, Chapter CS3.3 Verbal Clauses:

Attention: “verbal subordinate clause” poses a serious problem in English grammar! Unfortunately, in order to present it appropriately, a few more grammatical topics need to be explained first. Note that “verbal clause” is identical to “predicative clause”. Further, in order to delay the explanations a little bit [so that the readers would assimilate more knowledge] “verbal subordinate clause” is going to be presented in details in subchapter CS4.2 Predicative Clauses.

“Verbal subordinate clause” [PDC] works as a predicative name for the predicate in main clause. Consequently, the predicate in main clause must work similar to a “modal defective verb” which requires a “verbal subordinate clause” in order to fulfill its meaning. The great problem [in English grammar only] is the fact that there are two grammatical ways of interpreting a “verbal clause”:
     1. the first one is very simple, intended for beginners to grammar;
     2. the second interpretation is for advanced users [this last interpretation is valid in any language,
     and it allows for perfect translations into/from other languages].

Fragment form LSEG4, Chapter CS4.2 Predicative Clauses:

Attention: in most English grammar books, “subject complement clause” and “object complement clause” are presented as being “predicative clauses”! That is a gross grammatical error. A predicative clause has the syntactic function of a “predicative name” for an “incomplete predication verb” (working as a modal defective) in main clause. The formula used is:

a “nominal predicate”=“an incomplete predication verb in main clause”+“a predicative clause”.

Fact is, “predicative clause” [PDC] represents the Achilles’ heel—the greatest weakness—in English grammar. Practically, there are two (conflicting) interpretations:

A. the “beginner users interpretation” says: “there is no (true) predicative clause in English grammar”;
B. the “advanced users interpretation” says: “predicative clause works as a predicative name for an incomplete predication predicate-verb in main clause”.

Note that interpretation B is in agreement with the international practice; therefore, it is going to be presented in this subchapter—although with the reservation that this topic is for advanced users only! Now, to add the icing on the cake, it needs to be emphasized again that, in many English grammar books, “predicative clauses” name (and they are) “subject complement” and “object complementclauses. This regrettable error appears, naturally, due to the fact that the predicate [verbal, copulative, and nominal] has never been interpreted correctly in English grammar books.

Attention: the category of “modal defective verbs” in Morphology, and the “predicate” in Sentence Syntax, have been too little studied by the linguist researchers. True, these two topics are fundamental to Grammar, though they are also the most difficult ones—in any language. They also represent the very roots of the never-ending confusion existent, for centuries, in (any) Grammar [and in any language].

No, "verbal clause" is not the "fourth dependent clause". Please study LSEG4 in order to understand subordinate clauses in general, and "verbal/predicative clauses" in particular.


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