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Date: June 5, 2016

Q18: Hello Corollary Theorems,

I graduated with a bachelor's degree in linguistics, and I stumbled onto your site when I was looking for some grammar information. You have made claims that your grammar book is unlike any other grammar books out there, and I have to admit that I am impressed by LSEG4 Table of Contents. It has prompted me to make plans to buy your book in the near future when I have the funds, though I am curious about some of the topics in your book. [. . .]

My next grammar topic question is regarding demonstrative pronouns. I understand demonstratives that contain the words such as "this", "that", "these", "those", etc. However, how are these words ("first", "last", "former", "latter", "other", "others", "one", "ones", "same", "such", "so") demonstrative pronouns that you classify as so in your book?

How are these words ("as", "but") relative pronouns?

C. J. - Miami, FL, USA

[There are more interesting questions in C. J.'s email to us, though we decided to address them one at a time.]

A18. LSEG4 was designed to help beginners, before anything else, then the intermediate and advanced users of grammar. Unfortunately, the level of grammatical training throughout the World is so low, lately, that it may be that LSEG4 should better be re-rated as a "Teachers' Manual"!

Note that each grammatical topic in our book is presented in "definitions", tables, examples, and diagrams, each containing ample explanations, atypical implementations, plus countless of marginal comments. Anyway, of interest in this brief article are "grammatical definitions".

RED LEAF LIt happens that grammatical definitions are difficult to come by these days in most (prestigious) grammar books. Even worse, it seems that most linguists don't even understand to what are those definitions good for. As a result, LSEG4 could be one of the last good grammar books left (in the entire World) to help you out.

Grammatical definitions are grammatical rules expressed in the most compressed form possible. The idea is that, using just a few words, someone can understand and remember perfectly everything there is to know about one grammatical element/topic/principle. Note that it is a pretty tough job to express in just a few words everything there is to know about one grammatical element/topic/principle. Fact is, those priceless scarce definitions help us learn grammar about ten times faster! [Naturally, that is, providing the definitions are correct.]

Now, we are stunned to remark that the USA grammatical curriculum is so . . . primitive these days. On the other hand, we know for certain that the USA grammatical curriculum is about five times better (considering its logic quality) than the UK one. As for the rest of the Commonwealth Countries (Australia, New Zeeland, South Africa, Nigeria, India, Singapore, and so on) things are . . . Well, let's say "they are oblivious to logic"; false and hollow grammatical reputation comes first in those great nations. Anyway, let's start this.
Fragment from LSEG4:

"Demonstrative pronoun" works impersonally: it replaces a noun, or an equivalent noun, and it sets a precise spatial/temporal/abstract reference from the speaker to the determined noun.

Attention: the impersonal demonstrative pronouns replace their antecedents, therefore the examples employed to present them could have elliptic meanings. On the other hand, demonstrative adjectives are positioned near their determined nouns, and that helps understanding grammatical mechanisms unveiled in this subchapter. Consequently, demonstrative adjectives have been used preferentially, in many of the following examples.

GREEN LEAFOne word (say, "others") becomes a demonstrative pronoun/adjective ("of identity" in this instance) only when it works as a demonstrative pronoun/adjective, according to the above definition. Grammatically, the word "others" is an indefinite pronoun; in order to become a demonstrative pronoun, "others" needs to be predetermined by the definite article ahead to become "the others".


Other people may disagree with our statements. [An indefinite adjective instance. "Other people" stands for a possible undefined group of unknown individuals.]

The others managed to the shore safely. [A demonstrative pronoun instance. "The others" represent a precise, perfectly known group of persons.]

I heard the same affirmation yesterday, from Gina. [A demonstrative adjective instance. The words "the same" refer to a perfectly known affirmation, therefore "the same" is a demonstrative adjective of identity.]

I want the same here, thank you. [A demonstrative pronoun instance, of identity. "The same" refers to a precise, perfectly known thing/action to the interlocutors.]

Fragment form LSEG4:

Relative pronoun “as” replaces “who”, “which”, and “that”, in some instances, particularly when it follows the demonstrative pronouns/adjectives “the same” and “such”. Relative pronoun “as” has a single form used both personally and impersonally.

We are sorry C. J., but we cannot reveal too many details/examples from LSEG4; you need to buy and study this book for yourself, for a couple of years. Both chapters, "M3: Adjectives" and "M4: Pronouns", are very interesting, and they present many little know (or even unknown, lately) grammatical topics that are—amazingly!—particularly common forms of expression.

To our friend C. J., and to everybody else, please rest assured that all your questions are answered in sharp details in LSEG4. All it takes to understand grammar once and for all is a little bit of determination on your side. Sure now, we know that beer is so expensive these days and . . . Yeaah!


The complete, easy to learn, Logically Structured English Grammar 4: theory plus exercises!

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