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ELECTRONIC DESIGN NOTES #13 - STANDARD LOGIC ICs



GREEN  LEAF RElectronic HardwareNot only that logic (digital) ICs are way more powerful, compared to the analog electronics, but they are also a lot easier to work with. In fact, designing digital electronics may be as simple as playing with a Lego game. All you need for that is a good start-kick, and our book
LEARN HARDWARE FIRMWARE AND SOFTWARE DESIGN is, in fact, the best one of the lot!

Now, many logic ICs are standard components, meaning, they are built by many manufacturers. That is a particularly important aspect when designing hardware, because you are not constrained to using the components of one manufacturer only. Always try to use standard components in your designs as much as it is (humanly) possible. In addition, you should remember that in firmware we can implement any hardware function. For example, an 8 pins Microchip controller of about 0.5 USD may be an excellent local driver, replacing a few expensive ICs, and having plenty of upgradeable firmware intelligence. Firmware intelligence should always be preferred to hardware logic.

In this page are highlighted briefly a few standard logic ICs, but you should be aware that they are far more numerous. The structure used to present families of ICs is:

1. Types of standard ICs
2. Standard Logic ICs


NOTE

The basic notions highlighted in this page are related to a few electronic design topics presented in the first part, Hardware Design, of
LEARN HARDWARE FIRMWARE AND SOFTWARE DESIGN.

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1. TYPES OF STANDARD ICs

Based on their fabrication technology, there are five major types of standard Logic ICs, as follows:

1. Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL)
2. Diode Transistor Logic (DTL)
3. Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)
4. Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)
5. Complementary MOS Logic (CMOS)

Only TTL and CMOS are presented in this page because all other types are (more or less) obsolete.
 

COMPARISON CHART: TTL VS. CMOS STANDARD ICs

Parameter TTL (74000 series) CMOS (4000series)
Designation
74 means industrial range of 0 to +70 Celsius degrees
54 means military range of
-55 to +125 Celsius degrees
Have members in both categories Have members in both categories
Speed
The speed is measured as the propagation delay of the NAND Gate
Very fast, up to 3 [ns] Fairly fast at 25 ns and lower.
Power Dissipation
This is the amount of power in [mW] the IC takes from the power supply
They do take more power, but not very much: 1..19 [mW] Very little power consumption at low frequencies, but it increases greatly at high frequencies.
Cost Because they were built long time ago, TTLs are the cheapest of all standard Logic ICs Fairly low, and they become permanently cheaper. However, some highly specialized ICs could be very expensive.
Fanout
This is the number of loads a Logic IC may supply. However, this term is related to the same family. When you relate to inter-families of ICs, you need to check the output current supplied--this data is available in DS
Very good drivers; they do supply the largest amount of output current.
Fanout is appx 10 TTL.
Has the largest fanout in its family due to their high input impedance.
The inter-families output current supplied, however, is very small (1..2 TTL).
Fanout is over 25 CMOS.
Availability They are available, but mostly as older models. New models are developed almost exclusively for the CMOS type. Catching up, each day. In addition this is the type that is developed most.
DC voltage supply 5 [V] 3..15 [V]
HIGH logic DC
LOW logic DC
3..5 [V]
0.2 [V]
1.7..15 [V]
0 [V]
Size Mostly DIP packages Smallest. Many come as SM (Surface Mount) components.
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2. LISTS OF STANDARD LOGIC ICs

There are very many standard ICs (a few hundreds). Although the 4000 series attempts to follow/copy the 74000 one, there are differences between the two. As it is presented in LHFSD edition 5, the 4000 series is recommended as "command/control ICs", while the 74000 standard ICs may also work as "drivers".

Following are presented a few ICs of the 74000 series--though you should study seriously this topic, at least to have an idea of what is all the fuss about.
 

STANDARD LOGIC ICs

74000 Series Description
7406 Hex Inverter, buffer driver.
7414 Hex Schmitt-Trigger.
7426 Dual TTL-CMOS Interface gate
7430 8 Input NAND Gate
7441/7442 BCD to Decimal Decoder
7444 3 Grey code to Decimal Decoder
7446 BCD to Seven-Segments Decimal driver (up to 30 V out)
7470 Edge triggered J-K Flip-Flop
7473 Dual J-K
7475 Quad D
7477 4 bit Bistable latch
7480 Gated Full Adder
7481 16 bit active element memory
7483 4 bit binary Full Adder
7486 Quad XOR Gate
7488 256 bit ROM
7490 Decade Counter
7491 8 bit RAM
7492 Divide by 12 Counter
7497 Synchronous 6-bit Binary rate multiplier
74100 4-bit Bistable Latch
74120 Dual pulse Synchronizer/Driver
74121 Monostable Multivibrator
74123 TTL/Monostable Multivibrator
74126 Tri-State Quad buffer
74128 50 ohms Line Driver
74123 Quad Schmitt Trigger
74133 13-Inputs NAND Gate
74138 3-to-8 Line Decoder/Demultiplexer
74147 Decimal-to-binary Encoder
74151 Eight channel Digital Multiplexer
74156 Dual 2:4 Demultiplexer
74164 8-bit Serial-In Parallel-Out Shift Register
74165 8-bit Parallel-In Serial-Out Shift Register
74167 Rate multiplier
74172 Register File
74181 Arithmetic Logic Unit
74183 Dual Carry-Save Full Address
74188 256-Bit PROM
74190 Up-Down Decade Counter
74200 256-bit RAM


LHFSD - Front Cover
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Page last updated on: July 18, 2017
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